Gary Price from Search Engine Watch posted a nice collection of search related papers from the WWW 2005 Conference in Japan. It’s not my belief that you need to read all of this to be great at SEO, but good information is priceless with algorithmic search. Gary had previously posted this collection of papers regarding search engine spam, or at least some theories about identification of it.
I am sure there will be some review and analysis within the search marketing community on some of these. I know I’ll be taking a look and posting here what I find useful for organic SEO. Of particular interest to me outside of implications for SEO, are news search papers. Here’s an interesting news search site created for testing and implementing improved news search methodology: ComeToMyHead